Important information about centrifugal pumps

 What is a centrifugal pump?

The central pump is used to move fluid from one place to another! Central pumps are most commonly used to pump household water.

Important information about centrifugal pumps

 What is a centrifugal pump?

 Centrifugal pump is a type of mechanical device designed to move any fluid from one place to another through the transfer of rotational energy from one or more powered rotors! Which are called impellers. Prompts the material to rotate rapidly along its axis and the impeller force is ejected by the central force along its circumference through the tips. The action of the impeller increases the velocity and pressure of the fluid and also directs the pump outward. The pump casing is specifically designed or built to pull fluid from the pump inlet.


How does a Centrifugal Pump Work?

The impeller is a main part or component of a centrifugal pump. It consists of a series of curved vans. They are usually connected between two discos [between the impeller]. An open or semi-open impeller (supported by a single disc) is preferred for liquids with entrained solids as you can see in the figure: -.

semi-closed impeller
open impeller


close impellers


Centrifugal critical type


The liquid fluid enters the impeller from its axis zero and exits along the circumference between the impeller vanes! The impeller is connected to a motor via a drive shaft on the opposite side of the eye and rotated at high speeds {typically 500–2950, ​​5000 RPM}. The rotational speed of the impeller allows fluid to flow out through the impeller veins in the pump casing. She pulls out.

 There are two basic designs of pump casing: - solute and diffuser. Both designs are intended to translate fluid flow into a controlled discharge under pressure only.

 A volute casing has an impeller offset effectively creating a curved enclosure with the cross-sectional area moving towards the pump outlet. This design causes the fluid pressure to increase toward the outlet.


The same diffuser design applies to all core principles. In this case, the fluid pressure increases as the fluid is expelled between a set of stationary vanes around the impeller. Diffuser design can be designed for a particular use and therefore may be more efficient.


       pump casing

Central diffuser case design in centrifugal pump


 What are the main features of centrifugal pumps?

The pumps have two main parts, one centrifugal pump, and the other positive displacement pump. Compared to the latter, centrifugal pumps are usually specified for high flows and for pumping liquids or liquids with low viscosity. In some chemical plants, 85% of the pumps in use will be centrifugal pumps. However, there are many applications for which positive displacement pumps are preferred.


What are the limitations of centrifugal pumps?

The efficient operation of a centrifugal pump depends on the continuous high-speed rotation of its impeller. Centrifugal pumps with high viscosity feed become increasingly inefficient! And it has more resistance and requires higher pressures to maintain a specific flow rate. In general centrifugal pumps are therefore suited to pump low-pressure high capacity, fluid applications with viscosities between 0.1 and 2 00 cP.


 Slurry pumps in the form of high viscosity oil can cause excessive wear damage and heat leading to premature failures! Positive displacement pumps often operate at very low speeds and have a very low risk of problems.


Any centrifugal pump that is sensitive to shearing is also damaged by the high speed of the impeller of the centrifugal pump.

The second limitation is that a centrifugal pump, unlike a positive displacement pump, cannot provide suction when it is dry! It should initially be primed with the pumped liquid. Centrifugal pumps are therefore not suited to any application where supply is intermittent, requiring frequent supply. If the feed pressure is variable then a centrifugal pump produces a variable flow! The positive displacement pump is insensitive to change pressures and will provide a constant output. Therefore, in applications where precise dosing is required, only the positive displacement pump is preferred.

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